234-305 A.C.E. - Wrote in Greek
Written 400 B.C.E
Translated by Edwin Hamilton Gifford
I speak to those who lawfully may hear:
Depart all ye profane, and close the doors.
The thoughts of a wise theology, wherein men indicated God and
God's powers by images akin to sense, and sketched invisible things in
visible forms, I will show to those who have learned to read from the statues
as from books the things there written concerning the gods. Nor is it any
wonder that the utterly unlearned regard the statues as wood and stone,
just as also those who do not understand the written letters look upon
the monuments as mere stones, and on the tablets as bits of wood, and on
books as woven papyrus.
As the deity is of the nature of light, and dwells in an atmosphere
of ethereal fire, and is invisible to sense that is busy about mortal life,
He through translucent matter, as crystal or Parian marble or even ivory,
led men on to the conception of his light, and through material gold to
the discernment of the fire, and to his undefiled purity, because gold
cannot be defiled.
On the other hand, black marble was used by many to show his invisibility;
and they moulded their gods in human form because the deity is rational,
and made these beautiful, because in those is pure and perfect beauty;
and in varieties of shape and age, of sitting and standing, and drapery;
and some of them male, and some female, virgins, and youths, or married,
to represent their diversity.
Hence they assigned everything white to the gods of heaven, and
the sphere and all things spherical to the cosmos and to the sun and moon
in particular, but sometimes also to fortune and to hope: and the circle
and things circular to eternity, and to the motion of the heaven, and to
the zones and cycles therein; and the segments of circles to the phases
of the moon; pyramids and obelisks to the element of fire, and therefore
to the gods of Olympus; so again the cone to the sun, and cylinder to the
earth, and figures representing parts of the human body to sowing and
'Now look at the wisdom of the Greeks, and examine it as follows.
The authors of the Orphic hymns supposed Zeus to be the mind of the world,
and that he created all things therein,containing the world in himself.
Therefore in their theological systems they have handed down their opinions
concerning him thus:'
Zeus was the first, Zeus last, the lightning's
Zeus head, Zeus centre, all things are from Zeus.
Zeus born a male, Zeus virgin undefiled;
Zeus the firm base of earth and starry heaven;
Zeus sovereign, Zeus alone first cause of all:
One power divine, great ruler of the world,
One kingly form, encircling all things here,
Fire, water, earth, and ether, night and day;
Wisdom, first parent, and delightful Love:
For in Zeus' mighty body these all lie.
His head and beauteous face the radiant heaven
Reveals and round him float in shining waves
The golden tresses of the twinkling stars.
On either side bulls' horns of gold are seen,
Sunrise and sunset, footpaths of the gods.
His eyes the Sun, the Moon's responsive light;
His mind immortal ether, sovereign truth,
Hears and considers all; nor any speech,
Nor cry, nor noise, nor ominous voice escapes
The ear of Zeus, great Kronos' mightier son:
Such his immortal head, and such his thought.
His radiant body, boundless, undisturbed
In strength of mighty limbs was formed thus:
The god's broad-spreading shoulders, breast and
Air's wide expanse displays; on either side
Grow wings, wherewith throughout all space he flies.
Earth the all-mother, with her lofty hills,
His sacred belly forms; the swelling flood
Of hoarse resounding Ocean girds his waist.
His feet the deeply rooted ground upholds,
And dismal Tartarus, and earth's utmost bounds.
All things he hides, then from his heart again
In godlike action brings to gladsome light.
Zeus, therefore, is the whole world, animal of animals, and god
of gods; but Zeus, that is, inasmuch as he is the mind from which he brings
forth all things, and by his thoughts creates them. When the theologians
had explained the nature of god in this manner, to make an image such as
their description indicated was neither possible, nor, if any one thought
of it, could he show the look of life, and intelligence, and forethought
by the figure of a sphere.
But they have made the representation of Zeus in human form, because
mind was that according to which he wrought, and by generative laws brought
all things to completion; and he is seated, as indicating the steadfastness
of his power: and his upper parts are bare, because he is manifested in
the intellectual and the heavenly parts of the world; but his feet are
clothed, because he is invisible in the things that lie hidden below. And
he holds his sceptre in his left hand, because most close to that side
of the body dwells the heart, the most commanding and intelligent organ:
for the creative mind is the sovereign of the world. And in his right hand
he holds forth either an eagle, because he is master of the gods who traverse
the air, as the eagle is master of the birds that fly aloft - or a victory,
because he is himself victorious over all things.
They have made Hera the wife of Zeus, because they called the ethereal
and aerial power Hera. For the ether is a very subtle
And the power of the whole air is Hera, called by a name derived
from the air: but the symbol of the sublunar air which is affected by light
and darkness is Leto; for she is oblivion caused by the insensibility in
sleep, and because souls begotten below the moon are accompanied by forgetfulness
of the Divine; and on this account she is also the mother of Apollo and
Artemis, who are the sources of light for the night.
The ruling principle of the power of earth is called Hestia, of
whom a statue representing her as a virgin is usually set up on the hearth;
but inasmuch as the power is productive, they symbolize her by the form
of a woman with prominent breasts. The name Rhea they gave to the power
of rocky and mountainous land, and Demeter to that of level and productive
land. Demeter in other respects is the same as Rhea, but differs in the
fact that she gives birth to Kore by Zeus, that is, she produces the shoot
from the seeds of plants. And on this account her statue is crowned with
ears of corn, and poppies are set round her as a symbol of
But since there was in the seeds cast into the earth a certain
power, which the sun in passing round to the lower hemisphere drags down
at the time of the winter solstice, Kore is the seminal power, and Pluto
the sun passing under the earth, and traversing the unseen world at the
time of the winter solstice; and he is said to carry off Kore, who, while
hidden beneath the earth, is lamented by her mother
The power which produces hard-shelled fruits, and the fruits of
plants in general, is named Dionysus. But observe the images of these also.
For Kore bears symbols of the production of the plants which grow above
the earth in the crops: and Dionysus has horns in common with Kore, and
is of female form, indicating the union of male and female forces in the
generation of the hard shelled fruits.
But Pluto, the ravisher of Kore, has a helmet as a symbol of the
unseen pole, and his shortened sceptre as an emblem of his kingdom of the
nether world; and his dog indicates the generation of the fruits in its
threefold division - the sowing of the seed, its reception by the earth,
its growing up. For he is called a dog, not because souls are his food,
but because of the earth's fertility, for which Pluto provides when he
carries off Kore.
Attis, too, and Adonis are related to the analogy of fruits. Attis
is the symbol of the blossoms which appear early in the spring, and fall
off before the complete fertilization; whence they further attributed castration
to him, from the fruits not having attained to seminal perfection: but
Adonis was the symbol of the cutting of the perfect
Silenus was the symbol of the wind's motion, which contributes
no few benefits to the world. And the flowery and brilliant wreath upon
his head is symbolic of the revolution of the heaven, and the hair with
which his lower limbs are surrounded is an indication of the density of
the air near the earth.
Since there was also a power partaking of the prophetic faculty,
the power is called Themis, because of its telling what is appointed and
fixed for each person.
In all these ways, then, the power of the earth finds an interpretation
and is worshipped: as a virgin and Hestia, she holds the centre; as a mother
she nourishes; as Rhea she makes rocks and dwells on mountains; as Demeter,
she produces herbage; and as Themis, she utters oracles: while the seminal
law which descends into her bosom is figured as Priapus, the influence
of which on dry crops is called Kore, and on soft fruits and shellfruits
is called Dionysus. For Kore was carried off by Pluto, that is, the sun
going; down beneath the earth at seed-time; but Dionysus begins to sprout
according to the conditions of the power which, while young, is hidden
beneath the earth, yet produces fine fruits, and is an ally of the power
in the blossom symbolized by Attis, and of the cutting of the ripened corn
symbolized by Adonis.
Also the power of the wind which pervades all things is formed
into a figure of Silenus, and the perversion to frenzy into a figure of
a Bacchante, as also the impulse which excites to lust is represented by
the Satyrs. These, then, are the symbols by which the power of the earth
The whole power productive of water they called Oceanus, and named
its symbolic figure Tethys. But of the whole, the drinking-water produced
is called Achelous; and the sea-water Poseidon; while again that which
makes the sea, inasmuch as it is productive, is Amphitrite. Of the sweet
waters the particular powers are called Nymphs, and those of the sea-waters
Again, the power of fire they called Hephaestus, and have made
his image in the form of a man, but put on it a blue cap as a symbol of
the revolution of the heavens, because the archetypal and purest form of
fire is there. But the fire brought down from heaven to earth is less intense,
and wants the strengthening and support which is found in matter: wherefore
he is lame, as needing matter to support him.
Also they supposed a power of this kind to belong to the sun and
called it Apollo, from the pulsation of his beams. There are also nine
Muses singing to his lyre, which are the sublunar sphere, and seven spheres
of the planets, and one of the fixed stars. And they crowned him with laurel,
partly because the plant is full of fire, and therefore hated by daemons;
and partly because it crackles in burning, to represent the god's prophetic
But inasmuch as the sun wards off the evils of the earth, they
called him Heracles (from his clashing against the air) in passing from
east to west. And they invented fables of his performing twelve labours,
as the symbol of the division of the signs of the zodiac in heaven; and
they arrayed him with a club and a lion's skin, the one as an indication
of his uneven motion, and the other representative of his strength in "Leo"
the sign of the zodiac.
Of the sun's healing power Asclepius is the symbol, and to him
they have given the staff as a sign of the support and rest of the sick,
and the serpent is wound round it, as significant of his preservation of
body and soul: for the animal is most full of spirit, and shuffles off
the weakness of the body. It seems also to have a great faculty for healing:
for it found the remedy for giving clear sight, and is said in a legend
to know a certain plant which restores life.
But the fiery power of his revolving and circling motion, whereby
he ripens the crops, is called Dionysus, not in the same sense as the power
which produces the juicy fruits, but either from the sun's rotation, or
from his completing his orbit in the heaven. And whereas he revolves round
the cosmical seasons and is the maker of "times and tides," the sun is
on this account called Horus.
Of his power over agriculture, whereon depend the gifts of wealth,
the symbol is Pluto. He has, however, equally the power of destroying,
on which account they make Sarapis share the temple of Pluto: and the purple
tunic they make the symbol of the light that has sunk beneath the earth,
and the sceptre broken at the top that of his power below, and the posture
of the hand the symbol of his departure into the unseen
Cerberus is represented with three heads, because the positions
of the sun above the earth are three-rising, midday, and
The moon, conceived according to her brightness, they called Artemis,
as it were, "cutting the air." And Artemis, though herself a virgin, presides
over childbirth, because the power of the new moon is helpful to
What Apollo is to the sun, that Athena is to the moon: for the
moon is a symbol of wisdom, and so a kind of Athena.
But, again, the moon is Hecate, the symbol of her varying phases
and of her power dependent on the phases. Wherefore her power appears in
three forms, having as symbol of the new moon the figure in the white robe
and golden sandals, and torches lighted: the basket, which she bears when
she has mounted high, is the symbol of the cultivation of the crops, which
she makes to grow up according to the increase of her light: and again
the symbol of the full moon is the goddess of the brazen
Or even from the branch of olive one might infer her fiery nature,
and from the poppy her productiveness, and the multitude of the souls who
find an abode in her as in a city, for the poppy is an emblem of a city.
She bears a bow, like Artemis, because of the sharpness of the pangs of
And, again, the Fates are referred to her powers, Clotho to the
generative, and Lachesis to the nutritive, and Atropos to the inexorable
will of the deity.
Also, the power productive of corn-crops, which is Demeter, they
associate with her, as producing power in her. The moon is also a supporter
of Kore. They set Dionysus also beside her, both on account of their growth
of horns, and because of the region of clouds lying beneath the lower
The power of Kronos they perceived to be sluggish and slow and
cold, and therefore attributed to him the power of time: and they figure
him standing, and grey-headed, to indicate that time is growing
The Curetes, attending on Chronos, are symbols of the seasons,
because time journeys on through seasons.
Of the Hours, some are the Olympian, belonging to the sun, which
also open the gates in the air: and others are earthly, belonging to Demeter,
and hold a basket, one symbolic of the flowers of spring, and the other
of the wheat-ears of summer.
The power of Ares they perceived to be fiery, and represented it
as causing war and bloodshed, and capable both of harm and
The star of Aphrodite they observed as tending to fecundity, being
the cause of desire and offspring, and represented it as a woman because
of generation, and as beautiful, because it is also the evening star
"Hesper, the fairest star that shines in heaven." [Homer, Iliad
And Eros they set by her because of desire. She veils her breasts
and other parts, because their power is the source of generation and nourishment.
She comes from the sea, a watery element, and warm, and in constant movement,
and foaming because of its commotion, whereby they intimate the seminal
Hermes is the representative of reason and speech, which both accomplish
and interpret all things. The phallic Hermes represents vigour, but also
indicates the generative law that pervades all things.
Further, reason is composite: in the sun it is called Hermes; in
the moon Hecate; and that which is in the All Hermopan, for the generative
and creative reason extends over all things. Hermanubis also is composite,
and as it were half Greek, being found among the Egyptians also. Since
speech is also connected with the power of love, Eros represents this power:
wherefore Eros is represented as the son of Hermes, but as an infant, because
of his sudden impulses of desire.
They made Pan the symbol of the universe, and gave him his horns
as symbols of sun and moon, and the fawn skin as emblem of the stars in
heaven, or of the variety of the universe.
The Demiurge, whom the Egyptians call Cneph, is of human form,
but with a skin of dark blue, holding a girdle and a sceptre, and crowned
with a royal wing on his head, because reason is hard to discover, and
wrapt up in secret, and not conspicuous, and because it is life-giving,
and because it is a king, and because it has an intelligent motion: wherefore
the characteristic wing is put upon his head.
This god, they say, puts forth from his mouth an egg, from which
is born a god who is called by themselves Phtha, but by the Greeks Hephaestus;
and the egg they interpret as the world. To this god the sheep is consecrated,
because the ancients used to drink milk.
The representation of the world itself they figured thus: the statue
is like a man having feet joined together, and clothed from head to foot
with a robe of many colours, and has on the head a golden sphere, the first
to represent its immobility, the second the many-coloured nature of the
stars, and the third because the world is spherical.
The sun they indicate sometimes by a man embarked on a ship, the
ship set on a crocodile. And the ship indicates the sun's motion in a liquid
element: the crocodile potable water in which the sun travels. The figure
of the sun thus signified that his revolution takes place through air that
is liquid and sweet.
The power of the earth, both the celestial and terrestrial earth,
they called Isis, because of the equality, which is the source of justice:
but they call the moon the celestial earth, and the vegetative earth, on
which we live, they call the terrestrial.
Demeter has the same meaning among the Greeks as Isis amongs the
Egyptians: and, again, Kore and Dionysus among the Greeks the same as Isis
and Osiris among the Egyptians. Isis is that which nourishes and raises
up the fruits of the earth; and Osiris among the Egyptians is that which
supplies the fructifying power, which they propitiate with lamentations
as it disappears into the earth in the sowing, and as it is consumed by
us for food.
Osiris is also taken for the river-power of the Nile: when, however,
they signify the terrestrial earth, Osiris is taken as the fructifying
power; but when the celestial, Osiris is the Nile, which they suppose to
come down from heaven: this also they bewail, in order to propitiate the
power when failing and becoming exhausted. And the Isis who, in the legends,
is wedded to Osiris is the land of Egypt, and therefore she is made equal
to him, and conceives, and produces the fruits; and on this account Osiris
has been described by tradition as the husband of Isis, and her brother,
and her son.
At the city Elephantine there is an image worshipped, which in
other respects is fashioned in the likeness of a man and sitting; it is
of a blue colour, and has a ram's head, and a diadem bearing the horns
of a goat, above which is a quoit-shaped circle. He sits with a vessel
of clay beside him, on which he is moulding the figure of a man. And from
having the face of a ram and the horns of a goat he indicates the conjunction
of sun and moon in the sign of the Ram, while the colour of blue indicates
that the moon in that conjunction brings rain.
The second appearance of the moon is held sacred in the city of
Apollo: and its symbol is a man with a hawk-like face, subduing with a
hunting-spear Typhon in the likeness of a hippopotamus. The image is white
in colour, the whiteness representing the illumination of the moon, and
the hawk-like face the fact that it derives light and breath from the sun.
For the hawk they consecrate to the sun, and make it their symbol of light
and breath, because of its swift motion, and its soaring up on high, where
the light is. And the hippopotamus represents, the Western sky, because
of its swallowing up into itself the stars which traverse
In this city Horus is worshipped as a god. But the city of Eileithyia
worships the third appearance of the moon: and her statue is fashioned
into a flying vulture, whose plumage consists of precious stones. And its
likeness to a vulture signifies that the moon is what produces the winds:
for they think that the vulture conceives from the wind, and declares that
they are all hen birds.
In the mysteries at Eleusis the hierophant is dressed up to represent
the demiurge, and the torch-bearer the sun, the priest at the altar the
moon, and the sacred herald Hermes.
Moreover a man is admitted by the Egyptians among their objects
of worship. For there is a village in Egypt called Anabis, in which a man
is worshipped, and sacrifice offered to him, and the victims burned upon
his altars: and after a little while he would eat the things that had been
prepared for him as for a man.
They did not, however, believe the animals to be gods, but regarded
them as likenesses and symbols of gods; and this is shown by the fact that
in many places oxen dedicated to the gods are sacrificed at their monthly
festivals and in their religious services. For they consecrated oxen to
the sun and moon.
The ox called Mnevis which is dedicated to the sun in Heliopolis,
is the largest of oxen, very black, chiefly because much sunshine blackens
men's bodies. And its tail and all its body are covered with hair that
bristles backwards unlike other cattle, just as the sun makes its course
in the opposite direction to the heaven. Its testicles are very large,
since desire is produced by heat, and the sun is said to fertilize
To the moon they dedicated a bull which they call Apis, which also
is more black than others, and bears symbols of sun and moon, because the
light of the moon is from the sun. The blackness of his body is an emblem
of the sun, and so is the beetle-like mark under his tongue; and the symbol
of the moon is the semicircle, and the gibbous figure.